Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Infernowear is a new company Essay Example

Infernowear is a new company Essay Infernowear is a new company run by a self-employed creative designer aiming to producing clothing at reasonable prices aimed at young teenagers who are into the skateboard clothing fashion. As this company has just been set up all orders are phoned through and then written down on any spare paper lying around. At the moment the owner has too much freelance work coming through and is unable to spend the time properly designing and implementing an order system even though he is quite capable. This system will be used to record orders as they are phoned through and also to keep track of the different garments and number in stock. User requirements: Specifically the system should be able to carry out the following procedures. * Store the details of customers and their orders We will write a custom essay sample on Infernowear is a new company specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Infernowear is a new company specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Infernowear is a new company specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer * Keep a list of all garments and garment logos * Record and update stock levels automatically after each order has been recorded * Ability to print out shipping labels for each order placed * Ability to expand the product range by adding new types of garment and garment logos to the system * Each logo and garment should have a simple product code that makes identification and inserting into the database easy and fast. * A search option should be included so that stock level and customer orders can be quickly displayed * A variety of data should be printed in reports including shipping labels and the order line. * As personnel details will be stored it is essential that the system is password protected so that it keeps this data safe and complies with the data protection act. Feasibility study: I will now carry out a feasibility study, as it is the first stage of the systems life cycle. After this I will then make a full detailed investigation into the current system and requirements of the new proposed system. The feasibility study will be based on the well know TELOS mnemonic for the five feasibility factors which are explored in depth below. This study covers all potential problem areas that could effectively stop the project from going ahead. It also covers the advantages that this new system would bring to the company after implementation. Technical feasibility: There is nothing too complicated with the proposed system so I am sure that there is no technical reason why this new system cant be built. There is also no problem why the system cant be built in Access so I am confident that I will not have a problem with the technical side of this new solution. Economic feasibility: As this new system is being built for my A level course I will not be charging the owner of Infernowear. As this is the case the benefits of having a well-made order system for free will defiantly out way the costs. Legal feasibility: Appropriate security measures shall be taken against unauthorised access to, or alteration, disclosure or destruction of, the data and against their accidental loss or destruction section 2(1)(d) of the Act This above act was taken from the data protection act; it states that security methods should be used to protect unauthorized access to personal details. As my system will be handling customer details including addresses and phone numbers it is essential that the system is password protected and secure. The data shall be accurate and, where necessary, kept up-to-date section 2(1)(b) of the Act This next snippet from the data protection act states that all data held should be accurate and when necessary be kept up to date. As the Infernowear system will be holding customer details its important that its accurate. To do this validation rules will be introduced to key fields making sure that only numbers can be entered into a telephone number field for example. The act also states that the data held should be kept up to date where necessary. The data will only be updated when a customer makes an order, the telephone operator will ask if the data is up to date and correct. If the company expands it would be necessary to include an operation that would delete customer details after a prolonged inactive period of time where no orders where made. Operational feasibility: This section looks at whether the right work practises and procedural infrastructure is in place to accommodate the new proposed electronic computer system. If not the implementation of this system would cause more problems than it would solve making the company less productive and probable lowing morel due to the newly arisen difficulties. After having a brief look at the current pen and paper work practises used by the owner I have decided that this new system could be implemented and would help to keep the whole operation tidy and all information in one place which is easily accessible and updateable. As the owner and user of this new system is already competent with Access there is no reason why there would be any difficulties with implementation. This section also looks at the probable social repercussions once the system has been installed. As the company consists of one, (a creative freelance designer) I can see no negative side effects of implementing this new proposed system. The only thing that will change is that all orders will be booked using the computer system instead of using pen and paper. This will drastically improve productivity and the speed at which orders are placed, it will also increase reliability, as there is no fileing system at present of order and customer details. Schedule feasibility: The schedule feasibility looks at setting out a time frame for the completion of the proposed system. The deadline given is for a fully functioning system ready for implementation by Easter 2003 including an in depth high quality write up. I see no reason why this system cannot be ready for implementation by the time set out above. This gives me plenty of time to produce a complex fully functioning system as well as a well documented write up. Analysis: Before I can continue I will conduct an initial investigation into the current procedures and work practises so that I can find out exactly what the new proposed data base system has to do. Interview with Company Director Mr B Hull: I conducted an interview with Mr Hull to discover in more detail what the current work practises are and what the new system has to do. I will use this interview method, as I will be able to extract large amounts of information from a single interview. I will not be using questioners because there is only one member of staff and I feel that interviews on the whole will be more productive. Current work practises: Orders: Orders are phoned through to Mr Hull on his own house number, these are then jotted down onto plain A4 paper. Each order consists of a garment type e.g. a hoodie or a T-shit and a logo like the orange Gecko or the flaming heart. After Mr Hull has several orders he contacts his printing suppliers. He places a master order consisting of all individual orders pays them up front and waits for the supplier to produce the order. After this the supplier ships the master order to Mr Hull who then distributes them to the individual customers. Payments: Payments are either made in cash or in cheque form. The cheques are either posted to Mr Hull or hand delivered by the customer, all cash payments are hand delivered. Mr Hull then adds the customers order to the master order and is sent to the supplier, this is explained in the above Order section. There is no record of payment once received except for a hand written note. This obviously needs addressing when designing the system, as strict records need to be kept about receiving payment. Delivery: Once Mr Hull has received the master delivery form the suppliers he then breaks it down into individual orders and manually writes out address labels to go with each order. These are then delivered via the standard postal service or collected by the customer. There is also no record of what has been shipped and to whom. This will also be taken into account when designing the system. Mr Hulls idealistic view of what the system should be able to do: Before I list what Mr Hull wants from the system there are a few new developments that need to be noted. As this system will not be ready much before Easter for implementation Mr Hull would like it to include aspects which arent needed at this point in time, but which will be needed come Easter. Mr Hull would like to have a stockroom in a couple of weeks within which are a quantity of pre-printed garments that are available to the customers. This means that Mr Hull wont have to wait to get a number of orders together to send to the printer. Instead he can do individual orders as they get telephoned through, this speeds up delivery times and keeps things moving. Orders: When customers place an order their details should be taken down including shipping address. Then it should be possible to attach an order or orders consisting of garments and the logos that should be printed on each one to each customer. By the time this system is implemented Mr Hull will have a storeroom of pre-printed garments, there for it is vita that stock levels are recorded and updated when orders are processed. Payment: Payment will take much the same form as before where by a customer is required to send a cheque or cash through the post or deliver it directly to Mr Hull. On the new system a simple yes/no check box will be used to verify that payment has been received. Mr Hull is also looking into making the company strictly a phone order company where the only way to pay for goods is with a credit card e.g. Visa or Switch. If Mr Hull can have a credit card payment system set up before the implementation date of Easter he would stop receiving cheques and cash which will speed up orders again as he does not have to wait for the money or cheques to come through the post. This will only mean that the new data base system will not need to print out invoices for each customer. Delivery: After an order has been inputted into the system an order line will have to be printed so that Mr Hull can compile each customers individual order from the available stock. After each order has been assemble customer-shipping labels will have to be printed by the system as this would save a lot of tedious hand written work. After this the orders will be delivered the same as before via the standard postal service. Before I break this interview down into simple objectives I will first find out what computer system and software Mr Hull has. Because he is also a freelance creative designer I presume that he will have a fairly reasonable spec computer with a good variety of software packages. Current Hardware and software: Mr Hull has a Windows based PC with the following specs: * Windows 98 * AMD 1.4 GHz * 512mb of ram * 60 gigabyte hard drive * Laser colour printer * Other media storage options including Zip drive, CD Rom drives and a CD re-writer. He also has a basic 1.44mb floppy drive. He has many software packages but the ones that need mentioning are: * Word 2000 * Access 2000 * Visual basic 6.0 As I have mentioned before Mr Hull is a competent Access user who does not have the available free time to produce a fully functioning system. His competency with Access means that the system can be quite sophisticated and I wont have to spend as much time making the system user friendly as he will be able to navigate Access with ease. Data flow diagram: The DFD below shows how the new computerised system will take orders and how the data will flow through out the system starting with the customer placing an order and ending with the orders being shipped to the customer. A customer makes and order over the phone, the operator checks the stock levels of the requested items. If the items are available then they are booked out and the operator checks to see whether the customers details are on file. If not they are manually entered and payment is then taken via a credit or debit card. Then the completed order updates the stock level and the order is added to the order line. The order line is then printed along with the shipping labels and this is where the computer system ends. After this the items are manually gathered from the stock and packaged. The shipping labels are then added to each delivery package, which are then posted to the customer. Objectives of the new system: Now that it is clear what the new computerised system has to do I will state the key features of the system below for easy reference and quick reading. * Enable customer details and customer orders to be recorded and easily edited this should also be done in a fast time, faster than a handwritten note * Produce a complete order line of all customer orders so that all required items could be taken from the stock room * Customer shipping labels will also be produced and added to each package * Security features will be introduced to comply with the data protection act like passwords and validity checks Design: Even though I am almost certainly going to use Access 2000 I first must look into other software solution and explain why they are not going to be used. Software choice: After using Excel, a spreadsheet program for other subject coursework assignments I have gained a good knowledge of its advantages and its limitations. It is very good for calculating and carrying mathematical operations on large amounts of data in a very quick time. Unfortunately it does not function as well as a simple data input device as customising sheets and performing validity checks are complicated and slow. This package is not designed for customised application layouts and therefore making the resulting system seem complicated and untidy. Because of the inability to customise individual sheets to a high degree I have decided that I will not use a spreadsheet program as the main backbone to my system. It is also possible to buy off the shelf solutions to this product order system. These packages are complex and contain everything needed to implement straight away. These packages have been written by highly skilled individuals and have been tested and updated using the well know evolutionary model by which improvements are made to solve pervious problem which have been discovered by the vast array of users. These improvements are released in the form of updates and patches. Because this type of package has a very high reliability and a wide tried and tested audience, it would make sense to seriously consider one of these packages in the future if the company expand greatly in the next few years. But as the company is just starting out it would cost a lot of money to purchase an advanced of the shelf system. This is not needed at this current time in the companys life cycle, because of this I will not be recommending spending vast amounts of money on this type of solution. The next type of system that could be used would be a custom made solution. This would most probably be created in Access due to its flexibility in relationship databases and the ability to customise forms and printouts based on queries run past selected data sources. Access 2000 is also currently installed on Mr Hulls system as well as my home computer and the school network. This makes building the system easy as it can be worked on at home in school and even in the final workplace. Because of the outweighed benefits of using a customised database system that can be purpose built to solve the clients needs I will be recommending using this type of solution. Final software solution: After a careful investigation into different software solutions I have decided that the new system will be built using Access 2000. This is because the software package is already available to Mr Hull and myself so no software purchasing is needed. Access also has many advantages over other technical solutions some of these are mentioned above in the software choice section. Database design: Entity-relationship diagram: With in my database solution I will have four entities each joined with the following relationships. Table design: I will have separate tables for each of the above entities being linked by the relationships shown on the previous page. Some of the tables will need input masks to make sure that the data which is inputted is correct, this will also help the system to meet the data protection act of keeping data accurate. Table names: Customers: The customers table will have the following fields: * Customer ID (this will be an auto number) * Contact first name (text form) * Contact last name (text form) * House number (numerical) * Street name (text form) * City (text form) * Postcode (text form) * Country (text form) * Phone number (numerical) * Email address (text form) * Notes (used for attaching notes to customer, could include any complaints) (text form) Clothing: This table will contain the following fields: * Clothing ID (text form) * Units in stock (numerical) * Product name (text form) * Product description (text form) * Unit price (currency) Logos: This table will contain the following fields: * Clothing ID (text form) * Units in stock (numerical) * Product name (text form) * Product description (text form) * Unit price (currency) Orderline: This table will pull together a customer ID number with a clothing ID and a logo ID, the fields are stated below: * Order ID * Customer ID * Clothing ID * Logo ID * Payment received Form design: My database will consist of four forms for data entry and five for navigation, product information and customer information. I will first give a description of the data entry forms with screen shots where necessary. Form name: Customers: This form will be where new customers can be added to the system and where existing customers details can be updated and amended. The input fields on this form will include; Customers names, address, postcode, phone number and email address. There will also be an auto customer ID number assigned to each new customer. Also I would like to insert a memo text box so that any special information about the customer can be logged here, this could include previous complaints and any payment problems. editClothing editLogos: These two forms will enable the user to add different types of garment and logos whenever new designs are produced. This will make updating the system easy and hassle free because you dont have to manually enter the new products into the complicated forms. FrmOrderline: This form will be where all orders are made; it will use a query called qryOrderline that combines the customer, clothing and logo tables. This data will then be displayed in a sub form within the qryOrderline form. After an order has been made it will then be added to the Orderline table. Report design: My system will include four reports, one for printing shipping labels, two for logos and garment labels these will be stuck to the deliveries as they come in from the printer so that each box of products are easily identifiable when looking in the stock room. The other report will be the master order line consisting of all the customer orders so that Mr Hull can take this into the store room and gather all items needed with out needing individual customer order sheets. Report names: LabelCustomer: This report will be based on the query qryOrderline showing each customer who has an order ; with there shipping address. LogoLables: This report will be based on the Logos table giving the user the ability to print out identification labels for labelling the stock. ClothingLables: This report will be based on the Clothing table giving the user the ability to print out labels for identifying the stock. OrderLine: This report will be produced from the query qryOrderline showing all orders with only the customers name and ID; this saves space, paper and ink. Query design: There are two very similar queries used in my database solution. One is used in the Orderline report to show all customer orders that have been paid for, to do this a simple = yes was needed in the criteria box of the payment received field. The other query is used in the form named FrmOrderline, it shows all the orders even if they have not been paid for, so when confirmation of payment comes through the payment received check box can be ticked. To do this the criteria for the payment received box was left empty to show all data. Screen shots of the two queries are also supplied in the appendix section at the end of this document. Macro design: Through out this system there will be many macros, most of these will be focusing on opening and closing forms. Three of these macros will be used to open the reports so what they can be printed. One other macro will be used to simple maximise each from when it is loaded. SQL statements: As I will have to update the stock level after each item has been booked out I will be using some short but complex SQL statements. To do this I will base my SQL code on the pseudo code that I have written below which will be run each time an item is booked out. The pseudo code below is for updating the clothing stock level but is easily modified to update the logos as well. Update table Clothing set field stock levels to = stock levels -1 where field clothing ID = selected clothing ID Menu design: I will be using a menu system for navigation around my database starting with a login screen this will then open up a main option menu. Below is the structure I hope to have in my final system. Performance indicators of the new system: * It should be easy and quick to add a customer to the system taking no longer than 20 seconds for a competent system user. * All orders should be completed with in 30 seconds otherwise the customer will be spending a long time on the phone and the system will not be efficient. * Any one customer should be able to have as many orders as he/she wants * The customer shipping labels should be printable on standard A4 label paper * Payment is made through another system but there must be an option that can be check to show which customers have given correct payment. * The stock level should be updated each time an item is booked out. Test strategy: Now that I have a functioning system it is vita that I thoroughly test each form, report, query, macro and any other code that I have to make sure that any problems are sorted before the system is installed onto Mr Hulls computer system. The parts of my database system that will be tested are: * Each and every form, report, query, macro and all other code as it is created. * Testing each button and rollover under different circumstances e.g. is it possible to close the order form is only half of the order is compete * Tests will be carried out to ensure that improper, invalid and extreme data cannot be entered * Combined module testing in which one aspect of the system is thoroughly tested like creating an order from start to finish or printing out customer shipping labels. * The last type of testing will be to see whether the system meets the end users (Mr Hulls) requirements. Test Plan: I will now carry out a variety of tests on as many menu options as possible without going hugely over my word limit. These test carried out below will check that all operations work properly every time with out fail, if there are any problems I will fix them, and state how, and redo the test to prove that it now works. I will first test the system starting at the login screen and work my way through the different forms and menus testing each as I go. Password test: When the correct password is typed in it should load the main menu form, the correct test password is inferno Test result successful, system does not login if wrong password is typed in. Roll over test (main menu): When the mouse is rolled over a link to another form the link colour changes to make the user aware to which link they are hovering over and to show that the link has go focus. The test will make sure that all link rollovers work. Test successful, as you can see the link with the focus has changed colour. Validity checks: I will now check that irrelevant data cannot be entered into the wrong text field. On my system there are way to many text fields to list each individual test result here. I will show an example of one of these tests below so you can see the result. The test below tests to see whether a letter can be entered into a numerical text box. From the above screen shot you can see that an error message pops up when a letter is wrongly entered into the house number field. The above shows an example of the customer table design, all other table screen shots can be found in the appendix. You may have noticed that the PhoneNumbers data type is text this is because when entering area codes like 0117 with a numerical data type the 0 is remove automatically. Obviously I need to be able to enter full area codes that begin with 0 so I have had to change the data type to text. These are the types of errors that rigours testing can find and iron out. The above screen shot shows the validation input mask used for the PhoneNumber input field. The mask only allows numbers to be entered, this fixes the text data type explained previously. The mask enables a user to type in a phone number with the option of adding area codes if needed and extra digits, the 9 represents optional number input and the 0 are compulsory number input. Other validation techniques and input masks for all other table can be found in the appendix. The above screen shot was taken from the order form. Unfortunately it is possible to change customer details here, this should only happen in the add edit delete customer form. To fix this all field were locked by choosing yes by the locked option in the text field options. Record deletion: When I decide to delete a record I need to make sure that a verification message pops up, this will make sure that any accidental deletions of any field type are very low. The below screen shot show the default Access verification pop up, this will do the job perfectly and needs no altering. Stock level adjustments: When orders are completed the stock levels need to be updated to take account of each booked out item. To do this a SQL statement was used and called from within some VB code. The code I eventually used was: DoCmd.RunSQL UPDATE [Logos] SET [UnitsInStock] = [UnitsInStock]-1 where [logo ID]=' ; LogoID ; The above code works with no problem even though it took a while to get the syntax correct. When you book out an item this code is run and a default Access verification box pops up double-checking that you want the order to go ahead. This is very useful, as I dont have to make my own verification dialogue boxes. Payment received testing: After an order has been placed and the payment has been taken a simple check box by each order line should be checked to show that the customer has paid. If the payment received box is not check the order will not appear on the final master order report. As you can see from the above screen shot only one order line of Simons whole order has been paid for, therefore on the master order line report Simon should only have one entry. After printing out the report it is plane to see that this test is yet another success, the report is in the appendix of the project for all to see. Report testing: The last piece of testing that I will write about is the testing of the reports. To test that these work I will just need to press print on the form (screen shot below) and see if the printouts meet the designated criteria set out in the previous sections. After examining the printed reports I can safely say that they work and all the necessary detail is in place. They could do with some tidying up but these are small problems which if I do not have time to fix I am sure that Mr Hull can change them at his discretion if he so wishes. System maintenance: Once the system has been installed it is vital that there is a structured system maintenance program in place so that any modification or problem fixes can be made. There are three types of system maintenance that are used almost all the time when new systems go live onto clients computers, these are then used throughout the softwares life cycle. A Technical manual will also be written in my spare time but will not be added to this report, as it does not count towards any of the marks. A technical manual will enable other individuals who are competent with Access to gain a quick understanding of how I put the system together and how to change key options. This manual would also include reports of know problems and their possible cause, this would help and system designer to quickly identify the problem and fix it with in a shot time period. Corrective maintenance: This type of maintenance will be used very frequently just after the software has been installed. Corrective maintenance deals with fixing major problems that were not found even though the system was thoroughly tested prior to the final implementation. After Mr Hull installs the system I would be more than willing to come back to his company and attempt to fix any problems that arise even though he is more than capable of fixing them himself. As this system is not built by a highly skilled professional I would expect many problems to arise within the first few weeks of operations. Fixing these problems could take a long time, as I have no one else working for me who could fix the system. The only thing I could do is try my hardest to fix each problem as it arises but keeping on top of all of them would prove hard. Perfective maintenance: This type of system maintenance is also ongoing there are many things with in the project which could be done just the little bit better. These minor updates and fixes can in some cases be very time consuming for the rewards that they reap. Before starting out to fix any problem no matter how small it is vital that the time and costs of fixing the problem dont outweigh the end result. One part of the system that I would like to change is the way orders are booked out. After each item has been booked out you have to click yes on the check pop up box, it would be much easier if all the items were booked out for one customer then a only one single check pop up box appears to make sure that you do want to book out the current selected items. Adaptive maintenance: Adaptive maintenance is concerned with adapting the current system as the needs of the company change. There are two major changes that could happen with Mr Hulls Infernowear Company that would result in the system being adapted. If the company expands it would be necessary to employ extra telephone staff to take orders. If this were to happen the system would have to adapt from a single user station to a multi user environment installed over different types of network. Mr Hull would also like to modify the system slightly in the future so that a similar system could be uploaded onto the Internet so that the customer does not need to phone up instead they can order any item over the Internet. User manual: This manual will give a brief overview of the system and how it works. It will include step-by-step guides for the most communally used tasks. As this software and user manual is purpose written for Mr Hull who is competent with Access I will not have to go into great detail on how to get to the design views on tables so large amounts of data can be entered quickly and other simple tasks. If you are updating from a manual pen and paper system you should hold the SHIFT key while the program loads. This will bypass the main login screen and will allow you to manual enter customer details from your old paper files into the blank customer table. Once you have entered in all the details follow the guide below. When first loading up the program you should be confronted with a password screen like the one below. Enter the password that you have been given when you brought this software and click the login button. You will now be logged onto the main option menu, follow any of the links to the separate forms. If at any time you want to return to the main menu or just shut down the form you are on just press the back out button, top left: If you want to create an order click on the create booking order button this will then bring you to a screen like the one below: To create an order first find a customer using the navigation provided. Then form the sub form choose a type of clothing and a logo via the dropdown combo box. Repeat this as many times as needed to keep adding orders to an individual customer. After each item has been book you will have to click ok to a confirmation pop up box. After payment is taken make sure that the payment received boxes are checked by the side of each order line. To add edit or delete customers and to add edit or delete clothing/logos simple choose the relevant option from the menu and follow the simple onscreen instructions. If you are going to add edit or delete clothing/logos make sure you know what you are doing as any changes cannot be undone. It would make sense to make a backup copy of the database just in case you lose important data. If you want to print any reports click on the print reports option from the main menu. You will now see a selection of reports that you can either preview or print straight way by clicking the appropriate button. The screen you should see is the one below: To exit the system back out to the main menu and press the log out button, this will bring you back to the password screen where the program can then be shut down via the X in the top right hand corner. Evaluation: I will evaluate the system I have made based on the performance criteria outlined earlier in the design section. The first criterion was to be able to enter a customers full details within 20 seconds. After trying and timing my self the best time I have been able to achieve is 18 seconds. This is just within the propose time limit but looking back on it 20 seconds is a very fast time to enter in over 10 lines of details. There is no problem with the system here but its down to the speed of the user. The second performance indicator was to be to make an order within 30 seconds. After timing myself again I have been consistently able to create an order with in 15 seconds, this is very quick and even surprise me. This shows that I have met this performance indicator very well and have succeeded here. The third indicator was for any customer to have more than one order line. This has not been a problem at all, I have made of 50 order lines for one customer and it still let me add more. This performance indicator has been easily met. The next option was to print customer-shipping labels on A4 label paper. I have not been able to test this part of the system, but the report is set up to print on standard A4 labels so I see no reason why it would not work, obviously the label paper would have to match what the system is set up to print. A payment-received option has been added thus only showing orders that have been paid for, on the main master order report. This is a complete success and works with out any glitches or problems. The last performance indicator stat that the stock level should be updateable after each item is booked out. This has eventually been done after a lot of research into SQL and after a lot of time spent getting the syntax just right. It is a small simple piece of code that has fulfilled this last performance criterion. Future enhancements: At this point in time there is no report for printing customer recites, this is quite important but is easily doable and will be completed after Mr Hull gets back from his holiday cruise. Each item could be given a stock location as well as an amount. This would then make sure that if the stock room were to grow the system would already be able to store the individual stock location of any one item. Last but not least it would be a nice idea to include some sort of mail merge so that whenever a letter has to be sent out to all customers it can be automated saving a lot of time manual work. Mr Hull is currently using this system to see whether its the sort of program that can do the tasks he specified earlier in this document. If this system proves to b built to a high standard he will use it until it needs updating or extra more complicated features are needed, at this point he may be forced to invest in an off the shelf package solution. Unfortunately Mr Hull is on holiday and I am unable to contact him and get any further feedback.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Analysis of The Bicycle and its Role in Society

Analysis of The Bicycle and its Role in Society Not only are Parents responsible for providing food and shelter for their Children, but they should also help them to develop their mental and physical condition. A Bicycle, a vehicle having two wheels one behind the other, influences a child's physical, intellectual and social development. It also can improve the quality of life. Riding a bicycle will provide children with health and other benefits. A bicycle can save them money in gas and also decrease the rate of pollution First of all, riding a bicycle requires movement of the entire body. It strengthens leg muscles. Moreover, it not only requires stability and balance, but it also develops coordination. It also requires stamina, and therefore keeps a child's heart and lungs strong. A moderate amount of physical activity, like a short cycle-commute, can protect against health problems like obesity, cancer, mature-onset diabetes, and osteoporosis.Next, owning a bike stimulates the intellectual development of a child; first, the ch ild becomes interested in sports, especially in cycling.English: child on a bicycle

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Guide on How to Write a Deductive Essay A to Z!

Guide on How to Write a Deductive Essay A to Z! Introduction To begin with, deductive essays represent an effective method of evaluating student knowledge in different courses and reviewing their analytical skills. A deductive essay is a type of essay in which students are obliged to use deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning is the logical reasoning that uses general, factual premises to reach a specific conclusion. Therefore, deductive reasoning can be explained as an application of the general rules that are narrowed down until a certain conclusion is reached. For this reason, deductive reasoning is sometimes called bottom-down logic. Deductive reasoning is often implemented in real life when people use the facts of the common knowledge or the ones that are already known to them in order to reach a specific conclusion. Writing an effective deductive essay requires the writer to implement ones strong analytical skills into the construction of a deductive argument supported by sufficient evidence. This deductive essay writing guide will hel p you achieve the goal. The Difference Between Deductive and Inductive Writing Deductive reasoning is often contrasted with inductive reasoning because they represent opposite types of logical arguments. Deductive reasoning starts with the general facts and reaches specific conclusions. On the other hand, inductive reasoning reaches general conclusions by implementing specific observations. Unlike deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning allows the conclusion to be false. Therefore, the difference between deductive and inductive writing is that inductive writing fits the specifications of an inductive argument, whereas deductive writing follows the structure of a deductive argument. The Construction and the Structure of a Deductive Argument Students working on a deductive essay should learn to create a deductive argument based on deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning is divided into three parts, including premise, evidence, and conclusion. The premise is the general fact that is applied in order to reach a conclusion. In a deductive argument, there could be a single premise or several premises at once. The premise provides a background for the logical argument. The second part of a deductive argument is the evidence. The evidence is a piece of more specific information that represents the subject of the analysis. The evidence is proof that one relies upon in an argument and a logical link between the premise and the conclusion. The evidence is based on a specific fact that is observed or analyzed by a student writing an essay. The presumption stated by the author of the essay should be backed up by credible information from scholarly sources. Finally, the conclusion is a summarized analysis of the argument that is based on combining the premises with the evidence that serves as a final proof of the premise. In deductive reasoning, the true premise is a guarantee for a true conclusion. Therefore, if the premises are not true, it is impossible for the conclusion to be true. The conclusion is supposed to be well-rounded and precise. There is a possibility for a deductive essay to have a multitude of credible conclusions. If this occurs, there is a need to choose the best possible conclusion and focus on explaining it to the reader of the essay. If the author of the essay chooses to focus on the multitude of conclusions, there is a risk for the essay to be out of the focus and not be understandable for the reader. The mathematical formula for deductive reasoning is as follows: If A = B, and B= C, then A = C. The Example of the Deductive Argument Premise: All humans are mortal. Evidence: Josh is a human. Conclusion: Josh is mortal. This is the basic example of deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning can become more complex if more premises are used in order to reach a conclusion. Types of Deductive Reasoning Used in Deductive Essays The deductive essays apply various styles of deductive reasoning, with each of them just as accurate as the other. Categorical arguments and propositional arguments are among the most widely used arguments in a deductive essay. Categorical arguments are the ones that include various items. These arguments usually implement common words and phrases, including none and all. A propositional argument is the style of an argument that uses the words â€Å"are,† â€Å"and,† â€Å"or,† â€Å"I,† and others. Propositional arguments can be described as the arguments that manage the sentences in which they are used. The Deductive Essay Writing Tips from Our Writers A writer of a deductive essay has to make sure that the attention of the reader remains focused on the deductive argument and is not dragged away to less essential aspects of the deductive essay. The requirements for the writing style include accurate sentence structure and the use of correct grammar. While there are typical requirements for all kinds of essays and not just deductive ones, appropriate sentence structure and grammar are especially important for the deductive essays because they demonstrate the analytical skills of the writer. The deductive essay requires the writer to apply superior analytical skills because they constitute the main aspect that is checked by the instructor. The ability to express ones analytical skills with language tools is another point that is being evaluated by the instructor. The deductive reasoning usually follows a clear and logical structure that is easy to follow for any reader. Each of the essay paragraphs focuses on a particular aspect of the argument, using detailed evidence. The most important part of the essay is the support of the conclusion. The conclusion cannot be simply stated without the appropriate support because it is likely to be weak in such a case. The deductive essay requires the author to remain objective and logical throughout all steps of writing. Choosing a Topic of a Deductive Essay Picking a topic is an important preliminary step of writing the deductive essay. In case there is a possibility to pick the topic, one should choose the topic that he or she does not feel overly emotional about. The best strategy for the author is to pick the topic one is interested in but does not have a strong opinion on. The reason for this is that it is quite difficult for people to stay objective about the issues they are opinionated about. Therefore, the students should treat the writing of the deductive essay as the opportunity to learn something new about an interesting subject rather than the ability to prove a certain point that the author of the essay cares for. In science, deductive reasoning is often applied in mathematics and physics. Among the disciplines that are considered to be humanities, deductive reasoning is more often implemented in philosophy. Therefore, it is natural for students to pick the topic of a deductive essay that is related to philosophy. However, the spectrum of deductive reasoning is quite broad; therefore, the topic of choice can be related to the variety of different disciplines. Common subjects that represent the basis for developing an effective deductive essay include political science, history, sociology, ethics (including bioethics), futurism, education, technology, and others. The implementation of deductive reasoning in deductive essays makes it possible for the students to choose the topics that effectively analyze current and future trends related to society. Therefore, deductive reasoning is at its best when it is applied to the topical discussions of the contemporary world. Deductive essays can contrast several phenomena or investigate a single phenomenon in depth. Some of the potential topics of a deductive essay include: Drug Dealing in Columbia; The Ethical Aspects of Human Cloning; Democracy vs. Authoritarian State; Communism vs. Capitalism; The Impact of the Universal Basic Income on the Economy; The Implications of the Governmental Intervention into the Life of the Chinese Citizens; The Ethical and Scientific Aspects of the Genetic Engineering; The Politics and the Ideology Behind the Arab Spring; Love VS Habit; Should Humans Strive to End Aging-Related Diseases? Should Toddlers Be Exposed to Technology from the Beginning of Their Lives? The Implications of the South Thailand Insurgency The Structure of a Deductive Essay Similarly to the typical argumentative essay of any type, the deductive essay consists of an introduction, supporting paragraphs, and a conclusion that reveals premises, evidence, and the conclusion of the deductive argument. Introduction The introduction of a deductive essay presents the basic most essential aspects of the argument that is being investigated. It is important for the effective deductive essay to avoid generalizations and to base the presentation of the topic on the facts that are thoroughly investigated. One of the most important parts of the deductive essay is the thesis statement that summarizes the major arguments that are made in the essay and wrapped up in the essays conclusion. Your thesis statement has to be clear and concise, without any unnecessary details added. All in all, a thesis is a short statement that reflects the conclusion of an argument and the reasoning behind it. Supporting Paragraphs The supporting paragraphs of the essay should investigate the facts found in the premises and the evidence of the deductive argument. For the convenience of a reader, the facts should be investigated one-by-one in each of the paragraphs. It is important not to overflow each of the paragraphs with too many arguments for the essay to keep its precise and logical structure. Conclusion Finally, the conclusion of the deductive essay should coincide with the conclusion of the deductive argument based on the research of the evidence and drawings from the premises of the argument. After the conclusion of the deductive argument is made, the author can expand the conclusion of the essay by offering possible directions the argument can take in the future. However, there is a need to keep the conclusion logical and concise without diving into the multitude of future possibilities that cannot be supported by evidence. If one chooses not to dive into the future possibilities while concluding the essay, there is a possibility to end it by stating the possible implications of failing to solve the issue discussed in the deductive essay. If the writer chooses to follow this pathway, he or she should remain logical and concise in the process of ending the essay, without drawing the attention away from the conclusion of the deductive argument. The conclusion of the deductive argument has to remain an integral element of the deductive essay conclusion that cannot be overshadowed by other statements made in the final part of the essay. The Post-Writing Steps of Working on a Deductive Essay The post-writing peculiarities related to the writing of a deductive essay focus on the elements that are directly related to the writing process itself. Therefore, the writer should pay attention to the logical flow of the essay, the sentence structure, the use of the language, the adherence to the basic grammar rules, and, first and foremost, the effectiveness of the argument that demonstrates ones analytical ability. The proofreading of the deductive essay should begin with analyzing the flow of the argument since the argument is the central part of the essay. The effective and correct premises, evidence, and conclusion form the basis of an excellent deductive essay. Even though the linguistic elements of such essay are considered important, the flow, structure, and support for the argument are superior. Therefore, the author should begin proofreading with analyzing the argument and conclude it with the analysis of grammar, sentence structure, and the additional elements of the w riting. The referencing of the paper is an essential final step of working on a deductive essay. The writer should strive to use peer-reviewed credible sources that back up ones evidence, including books and scientific sources. News articles and other sources can sometimes be used sparingly if they fit the context and the topic of a particular deductive essay. It is important for the writer to distinguish between ones patterns of thinking and the sources that support this pattern. Original thinking is an integral part of the deductive essay, and the author cannot simply rely on the sources regardless of their credibility. Apart from the specific characteristics that one should draw attention to while working on the deductive essay, the process of editing and proofreading of such essay is similar to editing and proofreading of an analytical essay. The author should analyze every paragraph of the essay and look for grammatical mistakes, mechanical errors, and the issues related to the sentence structure. If one selects an appropriate topic, constructs an effective deductive argument, supports it with the proper evidence, reaches the logical conclusion, follows the requirements for the structure of an essay, and effectively proofreads it, he or she is likely to create a deductive essay that will secure the student with an excellent academic score. References Bradford, A. (2017). Deductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning. Retrieved from https://www.livescience.com/21569-deduction-vs-induction.html Deductive essay writing help, ideas, topics, examples. (2018). Retrieved from https://essayinfo.com/essays/deductive-essay/ How to Write a Deductive Essay?. (2018). Retrieved from writeawriting.com/essay/how-to-write-deductive-essay/ What is deductive reasoning? (2018). Retrieved from https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/deductive-reasoning/

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Icons in the past and in the modern world Essay

Icons in the past and in the modern world - Essay Example bject that is easily identifiable by many. It may also mean a symbol that is used by different cultures to for purposes of historical value or having a known significance to such community or groups of communities. In the modern times however, icons of places are mostly represented by beautiful architectural buildings. Though past icons such as monuments, statues and historical buildings are still recognized as icons of different places, there is a rapid change in the way icons are perceived and this has been brought about by the construction of amazing pieces of architecture. This paradigm shift has been driven by the demand for popularity and instant fame as well as for business purposes. Different regions are now in competition with one another in the construction of stunning architectural buildings. This paper aims to detail and discuss the meaning and use of icons in the past and modern in the United Kingdom and give a comparison of the same. This will be done via researching th e major icons in the UK and detailing their use. The paper will also make a general conclusion of the history of the icons. Most specifically, the paper will focus on the bulky-Scottish Castle, the St. Pauls Cathedral, the Nelson Monument, and the small retail liver building. Background Information In the medieval times, icons were mostly represented by historical monuments and buildings. It also included paintings and carvings that were done on stones and caves by hunters or artists in the community. Such icons represented a particular history or symbol of power in the community. A good example of icons that represented symbols of power included palaces of the royal family in the kingdom. Buckingham palace in Great Britain is an example of such palace that was and still is home to the royal family. Religious shrines and buildings were also known icons in the past due to their revered status. Rome for example was a society that was deeply engulfed in religious practices and as such had several places of worship within the region (Lynch, 1960). Such places were known icons within and beyond the boundaries of Rome since they were not only revered by many, but also had influence on the political administration at that time. Great emphasis was also placed on the erection and curving of monuments and statues by several communities in the past. This was done to honour individuals for their great contribution to the society and as such, places where these monuments and statues were erected become known icons within the region both in the medieval times and up to date. From the twin towers in Malaysia to the Five Star hotel, Burj Al Arab in Dubai, the emphasis has been placed on tall and aesthetical pleasing building designs. Two dimensional form of art such as

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Navigating another culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Navigating another culture - Essay Example 2. I belong to the district of Gangnam that is located in the country of South Korea and the culture of Gangnam has been highly influenced through various elements. One of the elements that have mostly influenced the culture of my region is education. Education is given immense importance in my region mainly for the purpose of the development of the self of the people of my region. The education has transformed my region into a place where people have become quite materialistic and prefer spending a luxurious and wealthy lifestyle. The main purpose due to which education is promoted in my region is that it is believed that education will help us attaining better standards of life. The popular culture of my region is another aspect that has mighty impact on the culture of Gangnam. The district has been a host and part of various musical videos as well as movies. The region has been used for the purpose of shooting videos and that is one reason why the neighborhood of Gangnam is always bright and colorful. It is a place where people come to enjoy and especially witness the night life of the region (Willett 1). 3. I have been living in the region of United States since I was only 15 years old. My main purpose of moving to United States was attaining higher education as it is one of the main elements that is promote by my culture and my society. When I first came to the United States I faced various difficulties but unlike people belonging to collectivist cultures, I faced little difficulty in understanding the culture of United States and assimilating in their culture was fairly easy for me as compared to other immigrants. The main difficulty that I experienced when I became a part of the United States was my failure to communicate in English Language with the natives of the region. Due to this I used to feel left and alone and I used to even experience

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Physical Education and Academic Achievement Research Proposal

Physical Education and Academic Achievement - Research Proposal Example Students shall be divided into two groups: A physical education class and an academic-oriented class. This division shall occur for both 7th and 8th classes which indicate that there shall be four groups. Each group shall be compared from each other thru instruments detailed in later sections. The groups shall be observed weekly and shall be made to undergo a Physical Fitness Test immediately followed by Academic tests. Expected time frame is 3 months. In effect, the data shall provide two results: 1) whether exposure or non-exposure to physical education affects academic performance and 2) how the intensity of physical activity itself affects academic performance Covariant data shall be constructed for fifth categories. First is the family income where students shall be classified into families having $20000, $20001-60000, $60001-75000 and >$75000. These categories are based on National Statistical Socio Demographic profile which attaches corresponding ability to provide for educational materials with the amount of annual income. Second is the child's ethnicity where the participants shall be classified as: a) White, non-Hispanic, b) Black, non-Hispanic, c) Hispanic and d) other. Third is the previous academic background and performance. Fourth is the any additional educational support system specifically the amount of time a mother devotes to educate their children. The last is the amount of physical activity that the student experiences outside of the school. All data for these categories shall be obtained from parents, guardians and the students themselves. Classroom teachers shall be enlisted to produce reports regarding the number of times that students participated in physical education. The reporting process shall be from 0 (never) to the number of times like 3 times per day. Correspondingly, the teachers shall also indicate the total minutes per day that the sample population were engaged in physical education activities. It shall start from 0 with increments of 15 minutes (1-15, 16-30 with the last choice being >60). The data shall be categorized and labelled as low (0-30 minutes per week), medium (30-60 minutes per week) and high (70-300 minutes per week). At the end of every week, the students shall be made to undergo a Physical Fitness Test (PFT) in the morning and an Academics test in the afternoon. The PFT seeks to identify six aspects of fitness namely: 1) body composition, 2) aerobic capacity, 3) trunk strength, 4) abdominal strength, 5) flexibility and 6) upper body strength. These were chosen because it represents the intensity of physical development that the student has experienced. These data shall be compared with previous physical fitness examinations to fully determine the intensity of physical activity in consonance with the data generated from teacher-provided reports. For the academic tests, consultations shall be made with education authorities and other established education researchers regarding the appropriate content to be administered to the students. It shall also be determined whether test content that has been previously applied in other published studies such as that of Carlson et al (2008) can be adapted. In general, the subjects shall include science, mathematics, linguistics and world studies. In summary, we have four sets of data per group: 1) Physical education exposure, 2) Physical activity intensity and condition, 3) Covariates and 4) Academic

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Work Of Julius Shulman Photography Essay

The Work Of Julius Shulman Photography Essay The photographer assumes a role of tremendous responsibility in reporting literally as a communicator. The mind dexterity and the ability of the person with the camera can become the vehicle by which the image of architecture can be transferred to publications and the people of the world. It is a general assumption that the architectural experience is bound to the architectural work and to the direct encounter with it. Architecture is inherently seen as an experience of which you must be present for, live in or use day to day. The experience is bound to the subjects immediate association with the work its here and now. For that exact same reason the experience can neither be copied nor reproduced exactly like another persons work. However those not directly involved in the profession and even those involved often base their whole understanding and knowledge of architectural works solely on the reading of representations. During the 20th century photography more than any other technique of representation became a decisive factor for our relationship with and understanding of architecture. Success in architectural photography requires an unusual blend of training, background, temperament and personality that has been little discussed. Any art form, even if based on rational and technological conditions can when sensitively applied by an artist become the zeitgeist of the era. Julius Shulman makes photographs that reproduce other peoples work and promotes their work effortlessly. How he achieves this so successfully is what interests me. Everybody emphasizes the fact that a photograph can be reproduced and seen by millions, while a minority of people would know the original building first hand. What is important to me is that if the photographer is an artist they must create a new dimension to their work if they want to succeed or standout in their field. When an art form is immediately accessible to millions through equipment alone it takes special skills to hone in on the craft and excel in the field. Julius Shulman was born in New York on October 10th 1910 and died at his home in Los Angeles, California on Wednesday, July 15, 2009; he was 98 years old. Shulman was a renowned architectural photographer best known for his photography of the californian modernist movement .Not only did his work spread the modernist movement around the world at the time but it also garnered it a new appreciation in the early 1990s. The period I am most interested in is between 1930-1960 when some of his most prolific work was produced focusing on Californian modernism. Julius Shulmans first experience with the Californian desert region came in 1926, when he was 16 years old. He and some teammates on his high school gymnastics team in Los Angeles camped and hiked in canyons around Palm Springs, this connection to the vast natural resources informed his professional work documenting the deserts architectural treasures. For seventy years, Shulman amassed the most comprehensive visual chronology of modern architecture and the development of Los Angeles, photographing architecture by Richard Neutra, Pierre Koenig, and Frank Lloyd Wright amongst many others, and going much further to photograph the emerging petrol stations, movie palaces, and markets of Los Angeles. he documented the changing city over many years which is now stored at the Getty institute in Los angeles. Times have changed; equipment has changed; and architectural photography has changed. Today architectural photographs are more a bridge of communication than they are works of art. Julius Shulman simply viewed the camera as a box with an eye. His view that the architecture should take precedence over the photo and that the purpose of an architectural photograph may be documentary, interpretive, or both but it is seldom the pure art of photography. It may, in the best examples reach this level but only when it first fulfills its purpose as an architectural photograph. In this dissertation i hope to analyse what role Shulman played in the spread of Californian modern architecture along with how he influenced architectural photography at the time which has created his legacy. Shulmans Methodology In this chapter I will look at Shulmans work methodology and briefly touch on the equipment he used during the early modernist period. From the many people who have seen Shulman at work the evidently clear opinion emerges that to view him at work revealed much more than simply viewing his finished work. Shulmans quick fired nature when taking photographs with one shot negative black and white and one transparency in colour got him the name one shot Shulman The manner in which he dressed a scene revealed his desire for a very active image area in which there were no dead spots where the interest level of a viewer might drop off. One of his more unusual methodologies was his choice of spots to take a photograph. Rather than extensively analyse the location and test shoot from a multitude of various angles and locations he simply looked around briefly and picked a spot. This walk to spot method assessing which was best almost immediately adds to mythos of his work and methods. Jay Jorgensen stated while observing Shulman that The hallmark of Shulmans work is to find and exploit the most dramatic lines in structure. Again his ability to enter and appoint the best views very quickly is baffling to the majority of professional photographers even to this day. Some of his most famous images were taken with when compared to todays technology what would be seen as very rudimentary cameras. His photograph of the Kaufmann house was taken with an old Eastmann master view camera and a primitive Schneider Angulon Lense. However this is one of the most widely published photographs of contemporary architecture in the world. Although very open to technology especially in his later work Shulman was always wary of over reliance on technology something which is hotly debated in all aspects of architecture today. In his book The photography of architecture and design Shulmans view was that the photographer should explore all types of equipment in depth and how experimentation is key before deciding on the direction of their work and type of camera. A photographer should think twice before investing in the best. I urge you to consider personal needs and experiences first. Ideally the best should be pursued, but a tool is only as good as its user. Shulmans Favourite Photograph Every artist, designer or creative mind has a favourite piece of work that they cherish. Surprisingly of all of Shulmans photographs one of the most unusual and out of character from the bulk of his work strikes resonance with Shulman the most. Having photographed a striking cotton tree leaf Shulman had found while Golfing, it formed one of his most visionary concepts. He used it in Urban Design schools and Schools of Architecture to describe and illustrate how man can relate to nature. Shulman sees the leaf as the ultimate analogy of how developers should plan out their developments. The need to design a community within a framework in this case which he designates at the outer line of the leaf. The occupants of the development shouldnt trespass onto the nature beyond the leafs shape but let the leaf instead dictate the highways, boulevards and side streets with its veins. The small capillaries dictate where the people should live and the big masses show where the public buildings or large apartments can be built. The message here is to not go beyond the shape of the leaf but instead let all beyond be nature. He saw the land beyond as more valuable to the people living in the community if they can look out on it as nature , trees and the environment. To be left alone by man however Shulman was not against developers but merely wanted to highlight that developers should not act in a away that would put people off why they wanted to live there in the first place. Shulman when recently interviewed before his death was a little perplexed by the current mania for all things sustainable and the recent influx of its influence in contemporary architecture. Weve always had green-those of us who are concerned with the environment, he says. So why should we suddenly discover that green is good? When asked why Koenig never talked about his architecture as sustainable, Shulman says, In the fifties and sixties it was done automatically. The term green meant you related to the environment. Thats all green means: you are the environment. The reason why this architecture photographs so beautifully is the environmental consideration exercised by the architects, Shulman says. It was the sense that here we have beautiful canyons, hillsides, views of the ocean. Everyone loves these photographs because the houses are environmentally involved, and this was before the emphasis on what everyone is calling green. Figure 1 Learning Urban Planning from Nature, A dry leaf found in Yucca Valley, California Framing the Californian lifestyle Neutra and the many other California modernists added a new representation of the extravagant lifestyle being advertised in California, their choice of materials glass, patios that blurred the interior with exterior, sliding doors, and flat roofs where an accurate portrayal of the free spirited lifestyle available in this climate. California , Los Angeles and Palm Springs were at the forefront of the new wave of Modern Architecture that merged inside and outside which was a radical concept at the time. merging the buildings into their sites using topography, light and view while featuring groundbreaking new ideas of form following function and even ornament is crime. Throughout america there are many different photographers synonymous with various different cities. Art Shay documented Chicagos streets intimately delving into the goings on of individual neighborhoods while Arthur Fellig also known as Weegee documented New York with impeccable detail. Los Angeles known for its sparse street life it becomes clear that the photographer most associated with it instead looked into the private spaces framing the Californian lifestyle. The documenting outdoor kitchen areas and unusual shaped pools strengthened the allure of Californias to everyone in post war America. Shulman was a great believer in the California dreaming that emerged post war, ignoring the at times mean streets of Los Angeles instead focusing on the continual sunshine seen in all his work and luminous twilights. Embodying the prevalent optimism of an architecture seemingly morphing into lifestyle and above all architecture as a product to be sold through his images.,Shulmans photographs go beyond the simple facts of the building fabric to propose a blueprint for living. Shulman portrayed something directly influential on the viewer. It was the idea of what its like to occupy a modern house. Shulmans photographs are not innate objects of beauty in themselves or direct duplications of the stunning buildings; they are inviting, compelling images that allow the viewer to imagine themselves the scene. An architectural photograph is seen to evoke three possible desires: I want that photograph, I want that building, or I want that life. Shulmans best work evokes all three. He shattered the common misconception that modernism was cold and calculated. An unfriendly aesthetic suited for clinical, industrial or commercial buildings. He personalised the buildings in an attempt to sell the architecture and Californian style to the viewers. The photographer cannot possibly learn a how-to procedure; but you must learn how to take advantage of the full gamut of experience available to you. The ambition in California and the west coast in general architecturally takes a very different form to that of the East coast. Take New York where the upward dominance of the skyscraper was the focus and identity of the city. The Californian aesthetic was horizontally driven, promoting the fact there was room for everyone to construct an individual marker throughout the landscape Shulman identified this motif and exploited it to his advantage through his work and California as a whole. Shulmans legacy remains in california even though he travelled the world photographing many famous piece of architecture his heart was always in California. His own house which he commissioned Raphael Soriano to design in 1947. Unsurprisingly the design was modern steel construction which also included a purpose built photography studio for Shulman. Garrett Eckbo designed the surrounding landscape the entire site has remained unaltered since its completion in 1950. The house was inducted as a Historic cultural monument by the city of Los Angeles in 1987. Figure 2 Shulman House, Raphael Soriano, 1950 Human Occupancy One of Shulmans prominent features of his photography was the integration of people within his architectural photography. In the early years after photography was invented in 1839, the exposure time required to capture all the architectural details of, a complicated ornamental building on the photographic plate was very long. People were viewed as an unnecessary complication as they could not guarantee to stand still for the entire duration of the shot. This practical barring of people eventually developed into a widely accepted rule brought up by Wim de Wit if one wanted to be taken seriously as an architectural photographer, one should keep people outside the frame of the camera. This attitude towards architectural photography was largely unchanged in the 1930s or 40s when Shulman took up the camera. Modernist architects at that time considered space, massing, texture and color to be the primary tangible determinants for how a building functioned. Photographers were under pressure to promote these aspects rather than how people interacted with the building design. Shulmans approach therefore was unorthodox at the time, he ignored the stereotypical modernist principle of vacant images. He was not interested in wall details or moody empty rooms. Instead, he wanted to show the viewer of his photographs that modern Californian architecture, in spite of its lack of traditional ornament, was livable and an interesting exciting lifestyle choice. Julius Shulman is blessed with the gift of perception the eye that sees! and with it he has become our visual historian. For over 50 years he has shown us how experience can interact with ideas through images. He is what the Greeks had in mind when they said, the soul is like the eye, it never thinks without an image. The mood of the Kaufmann house seen in figure 1 located in Palm Springs California was captured through a long process of time exposures and careful darkroom manipulation. However one of its stand out features is the occupation in this photo of a lady lounging at the pool. Even at the time this divided architects and photographers alike over whether it was diluting the effect of the building with this distraction or ultimately enhancing the reception of the building. Shulman in an interview stated I used her to cover the light in the pool, because the photograph was shot on bulb,, this refers to the camera setting in which the shutter can stay open for a long period of time, unbelievably forty five minutes of an exposure. Its these types of intricate use of people and alternative techniques that add to the photographic art that Shulman is seen to pioneer. Figure 3 Kaufmann House, Palm Springs, 1947, Richard Neutra, Architect Before Julius Shulman arrived on the scene, architectural photography provided exactly what the term implies: photographs of buildings. Such photographs might show single buildings, or groups of buildings, or buildings surrounded by natural landscape; human beings were generally not included. To a certain effect the process has come full circle with a dramatic increase of architectural photography today lacking occupants in the finished buildings publicity shots. Are architects preferring to entice people into their buildings by showing the empty spaces and letting the visitors imagine visiting rather than prescribing their experience there with people within the initial shots. When beginning a photograph Shulman asks the overlying question what does the house represent? His view is that the easiest way to go about portraying the house is through an overall objective full view photograph. However he comments on the pictorial area on the far right of the photo figure 1. The more pictorial architecture elements attached to the living space located there draws the viewers attention and should be the focus of the photograph Another of his successful portrayals of occupancy was the case study house 20 by Buff, Straub and Hensman 1958 figure (?). Shulmans attention to minute detail stemmed as far as telling the young lady in the photo exactly what position to hold the glass aloft which he states was of the utmost importance to the success of the overall photograph. It makes all the difference in the world where her hand was placed. Figure 4 Case Study House 20, Atladena , 1958, Buff , Straub and Hensman Relationship with architects To understand Shulmans photographs you need to understand the close bonds Shulman had with the architects involved and his passion for their work. although having no formal training in architecture through these relationships his architectural vocabulary grew along with his natural photographic abilities. After world war two, book publishers and magazine editors were scrambling for material to fill their publications. Television was still in its infancy allowing the magazine with its diverse subject range and ever changing topics to attract architectural photography. It was during this time a new source of assignments emerged and with it photo journalism was born which enabled Shulman to strike up relationships with many architects while traveling on assignments. Shulman cemented friendships while exposing and engaging people in the architects work through the medium of photography. Richard Neutra Southern California Richard Neutra is seen as having developed an especially appropriate regional architecture, adding a new dimensions to the several regional design systems in that area. His traits which were inspired from simple post and beam construction, were exceptionally modern when applied to residential architecture, his design ethos came into its full range. Transforming buildings into icons, transforming steel and glass into reproducible images, that connected to the viewer yet seemed frozen in time was the challenge set by Californian modernism. Julius Shulman stepped up and took this role, upon meeting Neutra in 1936. One of Neutras apprentices was boarding with Shulmans sister, and he took young Shulman along on a visit to the visually stunning and nearly complete Kun House. (figure 5). Shulman, then an student whod been auditing courses at Berkeley and UCLA for seven years not really sure what his career path would be, shot photos of the crisp white house, using his pocket camera and a tripod. When Neutra saw the snapshots, he realised Shulmans special talent, an ability to capture the aesthetic and emotional intention of designs. The photographer Edward Weston fell in love with stunning cracks in buckly plaster, Neutra complained. His wonderful photos could have served as evidence in court against a plastering contractor. Understandably, the architect preferred Shulmans idealized portraits. Its the stories of each photo that can at times add so much to Shulmans work, especially when digital technology is so widespread today. The details that had to be considered and sheer effort that had to be taken for a singular shot was incredible. For the next thirty-four years, until Neutras death in 1970, the two collaborated. Through his work with Neutra, Shulman met other California modernists, including Pierre Koenig, Rudolf Schindler, Gregory Ain, Gordon Drake and Frank Lloyd. The architects created the buildings and concepts, but Shulman created the pictures that would communicate and interpret the buildings to the general public. It is important to look at the relationships between the architect and Shulman along with the images that made them famous and captured their essence. Figure 5 Kauffmann House Figure 6- Kun House , Neutra Figure 7 Treweek Residence , Neutra Pierre Koenig The architecture of Pierre Koenig, demonstrated an elegance formed from design process that merged plan, structure and nature into a single calming experience. With the use of steel and glass he evolved fresh and exciting solutions to some of the notoriously difficult aesthetic and structural problems at the time. One of his first houses made from steel and glass built in 1950 launched him on an internationally acclaimed career. When Arts and Architecture magazine was seeking inventive architects for their Case Study Houses, they chose Koenig to design Case Study House 22. Over the years Case Study House 22 has become an iconic symbol of Southern California living. It is a spectacular house soaring above the city below, with long cantilevered roof and floor overhangs that extend the viewers line of vision to the distant ocean and the horizon beyond. This appealed and at the same time challenged Shulman to produce one of his most famous images. Shulmans photograph of the Case Study House 22 The architecture critic Paul Goldberger called the photograph one of those singular images that sums up an entire city at a moment in time. In an interview with Shelter Shulman recollected what a unique experience the shoot actually was.Whilst visiting the house with two young ladies who were sitting in the living room when Shulman began, the shot was initially to be an interior shot, however when Shulman exited to get a breath of air he observed the girls sitting with the furniture being illuminated, with the view outdoors to Los Angeles. Shulman ran into the house and brought camera out to change the composition, multiple exposures was taken due to the interior lights being circular, flood lights where needed to make the girls visible with instant exposure. He turned off all the lights in house and flood lights were taken out and flash bulbs were put in instead for instant exposure. Shulman the called the called girls and said to sit in darkness for a short time to allow the exposure to burn the city lights into the negative, a few moments later a flash bulb went off recording them in the scene. But somehow that one scene expresses what architecture is all about. What if I hadnt gone outside to see the view? I would have missed a historic photograph, and more than that, we would have missed the opportunity to introduce this kind of architecture to the world. Rudolph Schindler Schindler is seen as the least understood of the American pioneers of modern architecture. In the 1930s Schindler used a skin construction as opposed to a structural skeleton, because of the flexibility by which forms might be organized without having to respect a structural grid. Through this freedom, he felt, modern architecture might achieve what the past had referred to as style. Schindler contacted Shulman as a result of his successful work with Neutra. Shulman described his relationship with Schindler as a cordial one. Schindler never attended an assignment with Shulman personally. He provided him with essential critiques of his photographs. Shulman recalled a critique of a photograph of Schindlers Daughterly house in Santa Monica. Schindler challenged Shulman on his over use of flood lights whilst photographing illustrating his point by showing Shulman naturally illuminated walls differentiating angular light. Shulman was always open to criticism and expanded and broadened his skills and knowledge from the top architects he encountered. Neutra was the first architect Shulman had met and all his photographs had been accepted with additions requested. This impressed Schindler resulting in Schindler asking Shulman to photograph the Fitzpatrick House in Los Angeles, in 1937 (figure 11+12). This was a fine example of Schindlers spatial ideas of form and movement. In his later projects, some of the crispness of his earlier work was lost as the overall forms became more fragmented. Shulman went on to photograph many of Schindlers work including one of Schindlers finest houses Buck House 1934 (Figure 13). The L-shaped plan with changes in ceiling height which allowed Shulman to exploit the diagonal views. The Large glazed sections open out to the south garden area. Gregory Ain Ains interest in group housing for middle- and low-income families began in his 1937 Dunsmuir Flats. Shulmans image of the four staggered two-story white blocks, the ceiling levels defined by continuous ribbon windows exemplify his design ethos. The panel-post construction was an early effort to reduce cost and was radical at the time. Ain adapted many contractors practices for large or small houses to save construction time and reduce cost. Gregory Ain was seen as the first architect in California to refine the low-cost house. This was exemplified in his Dunsmuir Apartments figure (15). Shulmans photographs enabled the work of pioneers like Ain to be eagerly accepted into professional journals. Shulman commented on how the editors themselves were learning as a result of his photographs to select and present the results of his work. Ains houses impressed the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) greatly and that they commissioned him to design a house in New York on the museum grounds (figure 15). It furthered his workable efficient design ethos and brought his work to a larger audience a recurring effect of Shulmans photographs Gordon Drake Shulman regarded Gordon Drake as a massively overlooked architect and integral to the progression of modern architecture. Although his career was short Drake won many international awards. Shulman cherished their friendship greatly recalling their first meeting in 1946 having been called to Drakes house (figure 16+17) in West Los Angeles. Shulman met his crew who shulman described as All were filled with enthusiasm, possessing a fervor to perform fulfilling architecture , inspired by the spirit of Drake. Shulman fell in love with the house and what it represented discovering that Drakes design was one of the most ingenious assemblies ever to confront me; the photography of which was one of the most joyous and rewarding episodes of my ten years association with architecture. The year the photograph was taken 1946 was the year progressive architecture magazine was running a competition for recognition of architects attempting to improve contemporary standards. In a massively over confident manoeuver Shulman placed a copy of the magazine in the shots of the house which went on to won the award as foretold by Shulman himself. Shulman cherished both his friendship with Drake and his association with what he called a man of brilliant expression, whose designs where not only functional , but adhered so favorably to his clients needs. Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright, was seen as the leader for American modern architecture around the world. He understood human needs and applied them to his work. Above all he sought repose, a peaceful environment free of stress which catered to the mental health and happiness of the occupants. Shulman has been compared to Wright as their work seems to become more accessible over time rather than instantaneously upon completion. In 1950 Shulman met Wright for the first time at the Taliesin West seen in figure (18) where Wright allowed him free reign to wander and snap photos unaccompanied which suited Shulmans work ethos very well. My broad knowledge of current architecture and my acquaintance with scores of architects throughout the nation and numbers abroad seemed to arouse his curiosity. It was this that bonded the pair and a lot of discussion between the two was on the topic the relationships of architects and clients and how streamlining the interactions can have a great effect on the outcome. Shulman had at first regarded Wright from here say from other sources as a belligerent, angry person. Wright did not deny these claims, however pointed out that the sources had probably never met him in person. Shulman had achieved what very few have ever with Wright that of engaging in personal discussions noting that our spontaneous bond resulted from smooth flowing stream of objectivity. Shulman allowed Wright to freely evaluate any photos he obtained from the buildings upon completion at the V.C Morris building figure (20+21). He allowed Wright to study them closely. Upon finding a good one Wright exclaimed at last someone understands in a photograph, my statement you have penetrated the spirit of my design! One of Shulmans famous Frank Lloyd Wright photographs of the Guggenheim interior was commented on by an Architectural historian , during a visit to his studio. Often one photograph creates a fulfilling statement. This one says it all. Figure (22) Due to Shulmans hands on close relationships with the architects that he worked with Shulman was often asked what differences have struck him about the many modernist architects he has worked with diverse designs from the likes of Neutra and Wright. His response was one of indifference he didnt see each designers ideas as radically different. He would compose a scene as long as he could identify with the individuals theme. The love of the building itself was integral to Shulmans work he chose his buildings and shot only subjects he enjoyed or related to. The close up From looking at Shulmans relationship with architects you can see that his personality and persona was as famous as his work. He was a skilled networker and socialite rather than a pedantic mysterious photographer. He blurred the lines of professional conduct with his friendships with clients. Shulmans extremely confident demeanor aided him greatly in the success of his work. Shulman was never afraid to self publicise and right up to his death was a fervent fan of his own work. If Shulman isnt the guest of honour, he is the moment he walks in the door. He assumes he will have an audience, and hes always right. In 1997, Benedikt Taschen responsible for the one hit Shulman nickname purchased Lautners, Chemosphere House, the eight-sided flying saucer that Shulman photographed, and it is where he stays when not in Miami or Cologne. Taschen said that if Shulman had not photographed the buildings featured in his extensive books catalogues, many of which have been razed, the world would never have known them. Figure 23 Lautners Chemosphere Shulman is know to say yes to any opportunity to speak about himself, his work , Los Angeles, architecture or art. He is known for his ability to talk for hours and no matter how many people are there or the subject matter the conversation always centers around him. Shulman identified a problem in architecture that has plagued the profession since its conception. He quipped that it was the worlds greatest problem is lack of communication, It leads to wars and failed marriages. The overuse of words also riled the photographer, som